According to the latest International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), there are more than 20,000 endangered species on their Red List of Threatened Species. Out of this number, seventy seven belong to Iran, and this number is 3/4th of all animal species in Iran.
Destruction or deterioration of conditions in their natural habitats, new industries and factories, building roads in restricted areas, illegal fishing and hunting, droughts, and lack of attention by the governmental departments are among the causes that have resulted in the present situation.
Among the endangered animal species of the country, the Iranian panther and Persian Zebra are considered the most important ones.
Lack of attention and neglect by officials has resulted in the destruction of a number of historic castles on the southern islands of Iran.
One great example of a historical structure that has experienced deterioration and destruction because of neglect is Hormouz castle, which is the most important structure built during the Portuguese domination of the Gulf coast and islands. This Castle was built by a Portuguese admiral in 1507.
Another castle known as the Portuguese Castle is 400 years old and has seen major deterioration and it is in very bad condition.
Unfortunately, the restoration work that has been done a couple of times by the specialists who do not have the right training has resulted in major destructions of these sites.
Our Heritage activists (Iran / Branch) are reporting that the Shushtar historical hydraulic systems are in danger of major deterioration and destruction. The site which was inscribed in 2009 as a “historical hydraulic masterpiece of creative genius” by UNESCO is an Iranian national heritage site and can be traced back to Darius the Great in the 5th century B.C. It involved the creation of two main diversion canals on the river Kârun one of which, Gargar canal, is still in use providing water to the city of Shushtar via a series of tunnels that supply water to mills. It forms a spectacular cliff from which water cascades into a downstream basin. It then enters the plain situated south of the city where it has enabled the planting of orchards and farming over a vast area known as Mianâb (Paradise). The property has an ensemble of remarkable sites including the Salâsel Castel, the operation centre of the entire hydraulic system, the tower where the water level is measured, damns, bridges, basins and mills.
It is believed by international experts; engineers and archeologists that the Sassanid engineers had created a structure that was a masterpiece. The river was channeled to form a moat around the city, while bridges and main gates into Shushtar were built to the east, west, and south. Several rivers nearby are conducive to the extension of agriculture and the cultivation of sugar cane. A system of subterranean channels called Ghanats, connected the river to the private reservoirs of houses and buildings, and supplied water for domestic use and irrigation, as well as to store and supply water during times of war when the main gates were closed. Traces of these ghanats can still be found in the crypts of some houses. This complex system of irrigation degenerated during the 19th century.
Over the last ten years, neglect of the cultural heritage in Iran has escalated and has impacted many historical and heritage sites and in the case of Shushtar Historical Hydraulic Systems, UNESCO demanded (in April 2011) that Iranian government submit explanations regarding the situation following the collapse of a portion of the Gargar Bridge at the Shushtar’s ancient water system.
It is widely believed by the experts and activists that the decisions and actions made by the Iranian government over the last three decades and especially the last eight years have greatly damaged the conditions of the Iranian forests and have put them in danger of destruction.
These actions include the followings:
– Iranian government has allowed exploration for oil in the Kavir Desert National Park which is a protected National Park and is believed to be the original habitat for the Persian Cheetah.
– The government has allowed building roads through Cloud Forest. Cloud Forest is one of the most unique forests in Iran. In the last three decades, deforestation has destroyed the soil in the Iranian forests and created drought.
– The government has allowed the extraction and exploitation of mines in environmentally protected areas with major and distinct wildlife. This has happened in many cases while the while the individual or people are not under the law entitled or allowed to start a mine.
– The government has allowed building houses and apartment complexes in many areas of forests that should have been protected.
These decisions have resulted in the gradual destruction of forests, and extinction of animals and plant species in many areas in Iran.
Translated by WCHV
The city of Yazd, which has been known to have been the first city to be built using adobes or sun-dried bricks in Iran, has historical sites spanning over 743 acres. Even though Yazd has been recognized to have very well known historical sites, it still has not been listed and recognized by the UNESCO. Yazd is one of the oldest cities in the world and many of its sites are unfortunately in danger of deterioration. Lack of good management and record keeping have resulted in the delays in the international recognition by the UNESCO and other agencies and no doubt has created more destruction and deterioration of these beautiful historical sites. For example, it has been reported that some very old houses are being renovated by the owners without paying any attention to the correct codes which are necessary for the preservation of historical buildings and national heritage sites. In addition to old mosques and historical sites, it has been reported that over 140 private homes could be considered national heritage buildings but have unfortunately been deteriorating and many fixtures (of the homes) like doors and windows have been stolen. Other factors that prevent Yazd from being listed as a national heritage city includes the new central library building which was built blocking several older historical buildings and a two hundred meter underground tunnel under a number of historical sites.